Companies that face competition from ex-employees often want a temporary restraining order. As readers of this blog know, there is a significant difference between a temporary restraining order and its big brother - the preliminary injunction. This past week, I had a lengthy TRO hearing on behalf of a client in federal district court in Minnesota. TRO practice and procedure differs widely from federal to state court, and even within certain courts - depending on what judge one draws.
This is the first in a three-part series about TROs in the context of non-compete disputes. Today's post reflects on a confusing issue of timing under Federal Rule 65: what does it mean, under the law, for an order to be "temporary" and for how long can courts issue TROs? Part II will focus on the benefits and drawbacks of seeking a TRO, as opposed to a preliminary injunction. And Part III will discuss some practical considerations when presenting and arguing TROs.
(Because it is the end of the year - a notoriously frenetic time for law firms - and because I have an infant who I'd rather spend time with right now, it is unknown when Parts II and III will appear. But let's just say within the next seven days...)
So onto timing. A "temporary" restraining order can only be...temporary.
The confusion for many parties in terms of a TRO's duration stems from the two types of TROs that courts see: those with notice and those without notice (called ex parte TROs). A TRO sought without notice clearly can extend no longer than 14 days under the terms of Federal Rule 65, and courts are highly skeptical of parties who seek such relief without letting the defendant know of the proceeding. In essence, courts will require parties to make an additional showing of why giving the defendant notice is either impractical or itself poses a threat of irreparable harm.
But the issue of TRO duration is less obvious when a party seeks a TRO with notice. Federal Rule 65 (and most state court rules of procedure) do not specifically address this. The 14-day duration limit is expressed in terms of a TRO sought without notice. There is simply no corollary in Rule 65 addressing duration limits for a TRO sought with notice.
So how long can a noticed TRO last? 14 days? Longer, at the court's discretion? The answer has to do with appeal rights. Under the federal rules, a grant or denial of a TRO is not appealable. This differs from the practice of some state courts - Illinois, for instance - which have specific rules of appellate procedure that allow for an appeal of a TRO ruling.
But just looking at Federal Rule 65, if a TRO is not appealable, then it has to be time-limited - whether the petition is filed with or without notice. Interpreting the rule otherwise, a court could simply foreclose an appeal right by calling a preliminary injunction a TRO. Remember: TROs issued with notice resemble preliminary injunctions. Notice concerns are gone. A party may respond with affidavits, exhibits, and even an answer denying material allegations. At that point, a court - depending on what exactly is presented - will have at worst a broad sketch of what an actual preliminary injunction hearing will look like.
So the answer is 14 days in either case. This issue is not the subject of much reported case law for two reasons. First, TROs aren't appealable in federal court so there is almost no circuit law on the subject. Second, parties often agree on how long a TRO should last - even if it's past 14 days. There is a natural incentive for parties to agree so they can adequately prepare for a preliminary injunction hearing.