The mentions that the State of Hawaii gets on this blog are, predictably, few and far between. However, in the span of just a few weeks, we have two significant legislative and judicial updates.
The first concerns Act 158, which Governor David Ige signed into law in June. The law is limited in scope and is industry-specific. The main thrust of the law is that it bans enforcement of non-compete agreements for employees of technology businesses. A technology business is defined as one which derives more than half of its gross sales from "sales or licensing of products or services resulting from software development or information technology development." The law further defines those terms.
The law also prohibits the use of non-solicitation covenants, which are defined exclusively as those restrictions that prohibit an employee from soliciting a former co-worker. It does not include any restrictions on contacting, servicing, or soliciting customers or clients of a former employer, meaning Act 158 expressly leaves open the question of whether this type of restrictive covenant in a technology business is prohibited. By omitting it, it is likely that such covenants will continue to be scrutinized for reasonableness under the common law.
Act 158 took effect on July 1, but the law has prospective effect only. For an excellent summary of Act 158, read Robert Milligan's analysis here.
While Act 158 is decidedly pro-employee, a Hawaii federal district court rendered a decidedly pro-employer decision in a non-compete case. The question presented in The Standard Register Co. v. Keala, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 73695 (D. Haw. June 8, 2015), was whether continued employment constitutes sufficient consideration to enforce a non-compete against an at-will employee. This issue continues to divide courts across the country. In the past year or so, some courts (Wisconsin) have veered towards a pro-enforcement stance when this type of consideration is at issue. Others (Illinois and Kentucky) continue to lean pro-employee and require additional consideration beyond employment itself. And we await a ruling from Pennsylvania on this same issue.
The district court in Standard Register noted that the Supreme Court of Hawaii never had addressed the question, so it surveyed the majority and minority rules across the United States. In following the majority rule, the court also relied on the forthcoming Restatement of Employment Law, Section 8.06, which appears to endorse the majority position - that forbearance of the right to discharge is itself sufficient consideration. The Restatement goes on to criticize the middle-ground approach taken by Illinois courts (as well as a handful of others) which examine whether the employment continues for a substantial period of time.